Wednesday, June 10, 2020

McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945 and the tax exemption to employees during WW2 - 275 Words

McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945 and the tax exemption to employees during WW2 (Research Paper Sample) Content: McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945 and the tax exemption to employees during WWII Name Date Institution McCarran-Ferguson Act of 1945 and the tax exemption to employees during WWII McCarron- Ferguson Act of 1945 was passed after the crisis that faced the health sector in America in the private insurance industry. The Act gave private insurance companies legal protection and ensured that they compete effectively with the government programs. The act thus exempted them from antitrust raids by the federal government as long as they were regulated by state law. In this case we shall look at health laws and in ways in which they have impacted the health sector in America (Butler, 2014). Health las are the laws and regulations that are put in place by all the sections of government in ensuring that health services are delivered effectively. In U.S health law is considered to be directly connected to both medicine and law. I would change the law by use of Board of Legal specialization which was later adopted to be Board Certified in Health Care. The major positive impact is that it gives clear guidelines for doctor- patient relations thus no discrimination that can be done. Ità ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s a big boost in heath sector since no negligence can occur. It also has helped in reducing on medical malpractice that may be harmful to the patientà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢s conflict of interest among between the doctor and patient i...

Friday, May 22, 2020

Alzheimer s Disease A Progressive Degenerative Disease...

Alzheimer’s disease is a type of dementia that gradually destroys brain cells, affecting a person’s memory and their ability to learn, make judgments, communicate and carry out basic daily activities. The disease is a progressive degenerative disease of the brain. It was first described by the German neuropathologist Alois Alzheimer in 1905 (Selkoe, 2016). The average life expectancy of an Alzheimers patient is between five and ten years, but some patients today have live for up to 15 years after the diagnosis due to improvements in care and medical treatments. The cause of Alzheimer s has not yet been discovered and it also not possible to confirm a person has Alzheimer s until their autopsy following death (Park, 2016). In the United States, according to the Alzheimer s Association, 5.3 million people had the disease by the summer of 2015. Of those effected by the disease, around 5.1 million were sixty-five and older while the remaining two hundred thousand were under the age of sixty-five. The main impairments to the patients brain are agnosia, which is the inability to interpret sensations and recognize everyday things; apraxia, a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain in which someone has difficulty with the motor planning to perform tasks or movements when asked to do so; and dysphasia, which is the inability to arrange words in a meaningful manner (Martone, 2016). This disease is progressive and will eventually lead to the death of the patient since noShow MoreRelatedAlzheimer s Disease And Other Memory Disorders1101 Words   |  5 PagesKennedy Cooper Biotechnology 5th period What are scientists using to diagnose Alzheimer s Disease and other memory disorders early and why should they do so when there is still no cure for it?more Alzheimer s disease is a progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions. It is also the disease that took my grandfather. Since there is no cure and because of how late he was diagnosed, there was little the doctors could do for him. I personally noticed changes in my grandfatherRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease And Its Effects1188 Words   |  5 Pages Alzheimer s disease is a cognitively degenerative disease with irreversible side effects. The disease was first discovered in 1901 by the late German psychiatrist Alois Alzheimer while he was working with a fifty year old patient by the name of Auguste D. Since the disease s discovery, scientists, psychiatrist, and many other medical professionals have worked diligently to learn more about the disease s effects and potential treatments to hinder its rapid progression. Alzheimer s disease isRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease : The Most Common Form Of Dementia1427 Words   |  6 PagesDementia, known as one of the world s current pandemics, is estimated to be the fourth most common cause of death in the developed country, second only to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases and cancer. With the aging population, dementia has gradually become a serious threat to the health of the elderly people in Australia. Alzheimer s disease is the most common form of dementia. Alzheimer s disease usually occurs in a primary degenerative encephalopathy in senile and pre senior periodRead MoreAlzheimer s Disease : A Brief History850 Words   |  4 PagesAlzheimer s Disease: A Brief History By Dana Griffen | Submitted On March 16, 2011 Recommend Article Article Comments Print Article Share this article on Facebook Share this article on Twitter Share this article on Google+ Share this article on Linkedin Share this article on StumbleUpon Share this article on Delicious Share this article on Digg Share this article on Reddit Share this article on Pinterest Progressive mental deterioration due to aging has been recognized and documented throughoutRead MoreMolecular And Cellular Mechanisms Of Toxicity And Cancer965 Words   |  4 Pageset al., 1997). A big number of epidemiologic studies relates the content of Aluminum in the drinking water with the increasing of the occurrences of neurological diseases. (Birchall et al., 1989) The Aluminum is accepted as a neurotoxic agent (Yokel, et al., 2000), and it has a relation with neurodegenerative diseases. Such as Alzheimer (Birchall et al., 1989). In animals used in researches, the first pathologic change is the accumulation of neurofibrillary tangles in large neurons, proximal axonsRead MoreConcussions Is A Progressive Disease Of The Brain1647 Words   |  7 PagesTraumatic Encephalopathy, or CTE, is a progressive disease of the brain found in athletes who have a history of repeated brain trauma†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Harris) CTE is closely associated with Alzheimer’s, another gradual, deteriorating brain disease that destroys the individual’s ability to remember, make decisions, and eventually takes away the ability for people to complete every day functions. Alzheimer’s is usually diagnosed around the age of 65 or older as a result of brain cell failure. (Alzheimer’s Association)Read MoreAlzheimer s Disease : The Neurological Thief822 Words   |  4 PagesAlzheimer’s Disease: The Neurological Thief Ashley E. Campbell Psychology 210 October 31, 2015 Malvereen Harris Alzheimer’s Disease: The Neurological Thief It is a wicked disease that slowly steals our loved ones memories, independence and eventually their lives. While no one knows the exact cause of Alzheimer’s Disease, it is the leading cause of dementia related deaths to date. It was first described in 1906 by Alois Alzheimer, a German psychologist and neurologist. Alzheimer’s Disease is a neurologicalRead MoreThe Shaking Palsy : Parkinson s Disease940 Words   |  4 PagesThe Shaking Palsy: Parkinson’s Disease Introduced by James Parkinson in his 1817 monograph â€Å"Essay on the Shaking Palsy,† Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common age-related neuro-degenerative disease identified after Alzheimer s disease. It is a progressive disorder in result of affected nerve cells in the brain. The disease progresses gradually taking several years moving from prodromal period into motor period, and the motor period may take up to twenty years. Symptoms of PD are mostlyRead MoreAlzheimer s A Progressive Disease865 Words   |  4 Pagesmemory, and your very own identity. Alzheimer’s is a progressive disease that slowly destroys the brain’s function of memory and cognition. Eventually, it terminates the person’s ability to do everyday tasks and requires the person to be under around-the-clock care. Alzheimer’s disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unknown mental illness (â€Å"Alzheimer’s Brain†). The woman’s symptoms included memory loss, languageRead MoreThe Mystery Of Alzheimer s Disease1537 Words   |  7 Pagesdefinition, etiology, signs and symptoms, stages of disease progression, risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia. Alzheimer’s disease is Ultimately fatal. Medical Definition. Alzheimer s disease is a progressive, degenerative disorder that attacks the brain s nerve cells, or neurons, resulting in loss of memory, thinking and language skills, and behavioral changes. These neurons, which produce the brain chemical, or neurotransmitter, acetylcholine

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Should Capital Punishment Be Applied - 1414 Words

Other issues include whether this punishment should be applied to other crimes other than murder such as rape of children. Some believe that capital punishment should not only be used for the murder of another person, but it should be used for major crimes such as rape of children, trafficking, etc. Applying this punishment would be a preventive way to stop crimes such as trafficking, rape, etc., because it would not be worth going against the law and face a serious penalty. Accusing a defendant for a crime that was never committed is another issue whether they should be held accountable for it. Innocent people are caught up in a situation where they are found guilty of committing a crime they’ve never done. First, they are accused of the crime, and then they are serving the time given. There are times where there is misidentification, false information, wrong accusing. For example, since 1973, over 130 people have been released from death rows throughout the country due to ev idence of their wrong convictions. Early in the 2000’s there were at least 10 wrongfully convicted defendants who were released from death row. One example of wrongfully conviction happened in Florida in 1994, where Seth Penalver was arrested for the brutal murder of three individuals. There was no physical evidence linking him to the murder; the only evidence police had was a poor-quality video in which the murderer s face could not be seen. He remained in custody until 2012 when the jury at hisShow MoreRelatedArgumentative Essay On The Death Penalty1112 Words   |  5 Pagespenalty is defined as the punishment of execution, administered to someone who has committed a terrible crime (Capital Punishment 1). This is also known as capital punishment, which is known for disregarding the human rights. Although many countries continue to enforce the death penalty, some countries think it should not be practiced. According to the United States, the death penalty continues to be a charged and controversial political and legal issue(Capital Punishment 1). In addition to, the deathRead MoreCapital Punishment : Imposition Of A Penalty Of Death By The State Essay1271 Words   |  6 PagesCapital punishment: Imposition of a penalty of death by the state. Capital punishment has been widely practiced ever since ancient times, as far back as 1500 B.C. From the fall of Rome to the beginning of modern times, capital punishment has been practiced all over the world. However, the problem in the justice system is that the death penalty can be wrongfully applied. This is rare but it does happen, the falsely incriminated is sentenced and executed. It is important that the government stillRead MoreShould The Death Penalty Be Abolished?1350 Words   |  6 PagesShould the death penalty be abolished? The death penalty, also known as capital punishment is a legal procedure in which a state executes a person for crimes he/she has committed. This punishment has been used by many states, and is normally used for serious crimes, especially murder. It is also used on crimes against the state such as treason, crimes against humanity, espionage, and violent crimes while other states use it as part of military justice. There are mixed reactions on capital punishmentRead MoreThe Tragedy Of Dante s Inferno954 Words   |  4 Pagesreaders. As well as, depict what Dante believed hell to be, and express some of his concerns with divine justice, and the appropriate punishments for the crimes committed. While reading this epic piece it spoke in many ways, and it addresses similar issues that are still prevalent in current culture. This religious allegory seems to focus on punishments, and how it should equal up to the wrong that was done. It brings to mind the rule of Contrapasso. According to John Kameen, Contrapasso is one of theRead MoreEssay about The Death Penalty Should Be Abolished1479 Words   |  6 Pagesdeath penalty, also known as capital punishment is a legal procedure in which a state executes a person for crimes he/she has committed. This punishment has been implemented by many states, and is normally used for atrocious crimes, especially murder. It is also used on crimes against the state such as treason, crimes against humanity, espionage, and violent crimes while other states use it as part of military justice. There are mixed reactions on capital punishment depending on one’s faith, andRead MorePersuasive Essay On The Death Penalty910 Words   |  4 Pageshistory of capital punishment, and why others believe it is okay. Capital punishment is when someone has committed a crime in which they are sentenced to death. In this paper I will be arguing that the death penalty is okay. Capital punishment has been a controversial and debatable issue for centuries. People have been sentenced to capital punishment since the beginning of time, it has been accepted as fair punishment by law enforcement within any period. Over time capital punishment has becomeRead MoreThe Death Penalty Of Capital Punishment1333 Words   |  6 Pagesof the many terrible mishaps, that have occurred in the history of the death penalty. Capital punishment has long been a controversial topic, with a countless number of cases taken up to the Supreme Court. This barbaric form of â€Å"discipline† began as early as 1750 B.C, with one of the most notable portrayals being a statement in Hammurabi s Code. Today, in the 31 states, in which the death penalty is legal, capital crimes from first degree murder, terrorism to espionage, are all punishable by deathRead MoreCapital Punishment : The Death Penalty932 Words   |  4 PagesBinch Ms. Stevens English 9 Honors 6th May 2016 Capital Punishment Tom Robinson is a Black, unfairly tried, innocent character being tried for Capital Punishment for falsely accused of raping a white girl in the book â€Å"To Kill A Mockingbird.† (Lee, Harper.). This is clearly wrong. Governments should not concern itself with taking people s lives. Capital punishment is a legally authorised killing for a crime. In the modern United States capital punishment is only used for punishing murder. The 1930’sRead MoreHistorical and Definition of Capital Punishment1160 Words   |  5 Pages This essay will out line the historical and definition of capital punishment. In the time of life each crime should have sentence which makes the criminal stop doing their mistakes again and again. People might not agree with some laws, their should believes that laws made only to protects them and their houses, farms, cars , also their life. There are a huge number of crimes such as robbery and assault on the street. If we couldnt find a sentence or laws to stop that which putting people lifeRead MoreIs Capital Punishment Immoral? Essay1525 Words   |  7 PagesIs Capital Punishment Immoral? In a Kantian world with moral laws, capital punishment does not seem to be a theoretical solution for punishing murders. But when someone does commit murder those individuals render their rights, and henceforth would acknowledge their action with consequences, such as capital punishment. Jeffrey H. Reiman presents various arguments against the use of capital punishment with no adequate evidence of effectiveness, but I disagree. Capital punishment is a reasonable

Thursday, May 7, 2020

Piaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development - 1096 Words

A central theme in developmental psychology is the question of how development can be conceptualized. One approach is to divide development into different stages. For example Freud (..) and Piaget (2003, 2000, 1985) described development as a qualitatively distinct series of stages. But there has been criticism about stage-based approaches in terms of how it is able to take on account the individual differences between children in development. The focus of this essay is on Piaget’s theory because it is one of the most influential theories. Furthermore, this essay will evaluate whether Piaget’s theory is able to account for individual differences in cognitive development. The main focus will be the development of children. Jean Piaget developed a theory about the cognitive development in childhood. He was convinced that the development of thinking is a linear and an universal development that occurs in four major stages. Each stage is characterised by a certain type of thinking. After resolving each stage you think qualitatively differently than in the stage before. What has been criticised is his suggestion that everyone gains certain cognitive abilities at around the same time. Theorists are claiming that this does not take into account the individual differences in development. These theorists are speaking about â€Å"quantitative development†. They argue that the development is characterised by small changes due to experiences which are made during lifetime. Nevertheless,Show MoreRelatedPiaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development1289 Words   |  6 Pagesare many great cognitive theorists, but the one that comes to mind is a development psychologist by the name of Jean Piaget. One of his prized declaration was in 1934, where he declared that education is capable of saving our society from collapsing whether its violent or gradual. Piaget had a key effect on education and psychology, and because of that effect he made many contributions to learning and to cognition. One of most important contribution was a model that was made by Piaget. This modelRead MorePiaget s Cognitive Development Theory1077 Words   |  5 PagesAccording to Piaget (1957), cognitive development was a continuous restructuring of mental processes due to varied situations and experiencing the world and maturing biologically. His view of cognitive development would have us look inside a child’s head and glimpse the inborn process of change that thinking goes through. â€Å"He was mainly interested in the biological influences on â€Å"how we come to know’† (Huitt and Hummel, 2003). Piaget’s views helps us to have appropriate expectations about children’sRead MorePiaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development1813 Words   |  8 Pages ECH-130 Sociocultural Tables LLlllll Cognitive Development Definition Examples of Application of Concept Strategies to Support and/or Assess Learning Birth to Age 5/Pre-K Piaget Sensorimotor stage: :the first stage Piaget uses to define cognitive development. During this period, infants are busy discovering relationships between their bodies and the environment. Researchers have discovered that infants have relatively well developed sensory abilities An infant who recently learned how to rollRead MorePiaget s Cognitive Theory And Cognitive Development1494 Words   |  6 Pages 1) Examine how Piaget’s cognitive theory can help to explain the child’s behavior. Piaget confirms â€Å"Each cognitive stage represents a fundamentally new psychological reorganization resulting from maturation of new functions and abilities† (as in Greene, 2009, p.144). The case Vignette describes Victors’ stages of development through Piaget’s stages of cognitive development as exhibited behavior that occurred during the sensorimotor, preoperational, as established areas. Victor experienced a normalRead MorePiaget s Theory On Cognitive Development1449 Words   |  6 Pagesstrengths and weaknesses of Piaget’s theory on cognitive development. It will focus on Piaget’s work highlighting positive attributes and how they’re being applied in modern day and also delve on key limitations of the theory. Piaget was a Swiss psychologist who was interested on why children would give similar but wrong answers in an intelligence test (Vidal, 1994). Based on his observations, he concluded that children undergo sequential cognitive d evelopment patterns which occur in defined stagesRead MorePiaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development969 Words   |  4 Pages20th century, the development of psychology is constantly expanding. Erikson and Piaget are two of the ealier well known theorist, both being significant in the field. Their belief s are outlined in Piaget s Cognitive Development Theory and Erikson s Psychosocial Development Theory. These theories, both similar and different, have a certain significance as the stages are outlined.Erikson and Piaget were similar in their careers and made huge progressions in child development and education. WithRead MorePiaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development1519 Words   |  7 Pagesrelates to both Piaget and Vygotskian theories in the sense that they describe how the child s mind develops through different forms of stimuli that occur during early childhood. Piaget s theory focuses mainly on things such as; how children think; how the world around them is perceived and how th e newly found information is explained through the language they use. Vygotsky s theory however differs as the effects of different forms of social interaction occur in cognitive development such as; internalisation;Read MorePiaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development1111 Words   |  5 PagesPiaget’s theory of cognitive development Piaget’s theory of cognitive development was based around his belief that children will develop their intelligence through a series of stages: Sensorimotor (birth – 2yrs), Preoperational (2-7yrs), Concrete Operational (7-11yrs) and Formal Operational (11+). He believed these stages to be invariant, the same stages taking place in a fixed order, and universal, the same for every child regardless of their background or culture. (McLeod, 2015) Piaget believedRead MorePiaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development Essay1790 Words   |  8 PagesCognitive developmental theories provide a framework for understanding about how children act and perceive the world. However, every theory has both strengths and weaknesses. A certain theory may explain one aspect of cognitive development very well, but poorly address or completely ignore other aspects that are just as important. Two well known theories of cognitive development are Piaget’s stage theory and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory. As I plan to be a pediatric nurse, these two theories willRead MorePiaget s Theory Of Cognitive Development1325 Words   |  6 PagesJean Piaget developed a systematic study of cognitive development. He conducted a theory that all children are born with a basic mental structure. He felt that their mental structure is genetically inherited and their learning evolved from subsequent learning and knowledge. Piaget’s theory is differ ent from other theories and he was the first to study a child’s learning by using a systematic study of cognitive development. His theory was only concerning the learning of children, their development

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay about Colon and Rectum Cancer - 1630 Words

The American Cancer Society estimates that over 100,000 men and women living in the United States will be diagnosed with colon cancer in 2013. Statistically, cancers of the colon and rectum are often combined and referred to as colorectal cancer. This addition brings the total to over 140,000 affected individuals with over 50,000 of these diagnoses resulting in death (American cancer society, 2013). Globally, the impact of this disease reached over one million people in 2008 with over 600,000 deaths attributed to colorectal cancer (Dusek, Maluskova, Musik, 2013). Colon cancer is preventable with a healthy diet, exercise, and curable with regular bowel exams. However, signs and symptoms of colon cancer usually do not present until the†¦show more content†¦When these cells become neoplastic they begin to grow into the layers of the colon and beyond as well. This event facilitates contact with capillaries and lymph vessels and cancer cells can then break off and migrate throug h the entire body (McCartney Oberleitner, 2011). The risk of cancer increases with age, and colon cancer is included in this factor with 62 being the most common age at diagnosis (McCartney Oberleitner, 2011). Repeated exposure to carcinogens over time can cause mutations in DNA, especially in highly mitotic epithelial cells, resulting in cancerous growths. An immune response in a young and healthy body would destroy the early formation of cancer cells. Unfortunately, individuals of advanced age suffer a decrease in the capabilities of the immune system. This puts them at a higher risk of dysplastic cells multiplying in the colon. Genetics may induce the coding of certain genes within cells to undergo spontaneous mutations. (Labianca, Nordlinger, Beretta, Brouquet, Cervantes, 2010). This factor produces the cluster of colon cancers seen in families. The risk of an individual getting cancer of the colon increases when immediate family members have received a diagnosis in the past. The rate of occurrence decreases when isolated extended family members develop the disease. However, if several people in one family group such as cousins, aunts and grandparents are diagnosed, the risk for the rest of the members of thatShow MoreRelatedColorectal Cancer And Its Effects On The Digestive System853 Words   |  4 PagesColorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer mainly starts at colon or the rectum. They are common in most of the way like features, but they have different treatment. What is the different between colon cancer and rectum cancer? Colon cancer happens first four to five feet of the large intestine and rectal cancer happens in the last few inches of the large intestine where it is connected to anus. Digestive system in our body Colon and rectum are both located in the digestive system. There are two partsRead MoreColorectal Cancer : Cancer Of The Colon939 Words   |  4 PagesColorectal cancer is cancer of the colon. It is also referred to as colon cancer. It is mostly found in people over the age of fifty. In the United States alone, it is the second leading cancer killer in the US. Colon cancer has four stages of cancer. The cancer can either be malignant or benign. The anatomy, signs and symptoms and treatments are all very important things to consider when encountering colon cancer. The anatomy of colon cancer is very intriguing. The colon is part of the gastrointestinalRead MoreColorectal Cancer : Disease Risk Factor Research Paper Essay1321 Words   |  6 PagesColorectal Cancer Disease Risk Factor Research Paper HLTH 435 Chronic diseases are becoming increasingly prevalent in the United States and around the world. Although preventable, chronic diseases can last anywhere from 3 months to a life time. Cancer is a chronic disease that is termed epidemic because the number of cases has increased highly over the years. Colorectal cancer, also known as colon cancer is one of the many cancers and it accounts for over 9% of all cancer incidents.Read MoreEssay on Bowel Cancer818 Words   |  4 PagesBowel Cancer The bowels are the intestines, consisting of the small intestine (the section between the stomach and the appendix) and the large intestine (from the appendix to the anus). The large intestine is divided into the long colon and a short rectum, just before the anus. Two thirds of bowel cancers occur in the colon and one third in the rectum, with very few in the small intestine. Who is at risk of bowel cancer? Read MoreThe Treatment Of Colon Cancer983 Words   |  4 Pagesâ€Å"Colon cancer, which is also called rectal cancer. Colon cancer is a potentially, abnormal growth of the colon, a long muscular tube that is a part of pupr digestive system.† Scientist found the earliest person who got cancer who used to lived in the Dakhleh Oasis, which is a country of egypt, during the Ptolemaic period. Colon is an important part of our gastrointestinal tract, which include mouth, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, colon, rectum, and anus. These organs connect togetherRead MoreEveryone Knows Cancer Is The Second Leading Killer In The972 Words   |  4 PagesEveryone knows cancer is the second leading killer in the United States. As people, we try our best to adapt when we hear a loved one has cancer. The question, â€Å"Why?† or â€Å"How?† always seems to come across our minds when hearing the diagnosis. Learning these common causes and risk factors may reduc e a person’s chances in getting cancer. The most common mainstream product sold to cause cancer is cigarettes. †Dangerous chemicals are found in tobacco use such as nicotine, Benzene, and Menthol (wood alcohol)Read MoreThe Case Study Of Colon And Rectal Cancer772 Words   |  4 PagesColon and rectum cancer is ranked third for cancer incidence and fourth for cancer death globally in 2013. Further colon and rectum cancer ranked second for incidence and mortality for developed countries and ranked fourth for both incidence and mortality for developing countries. The Global burden of cancer study showed that colon and rectal cancer was the fourth leading cause for cancer related years life lost between 1990 and 2013. The number of people diagnosed with colon and rectal cancer doubledRead MoreColon Cancer : A Disease That Can Affect Multiple Areas845 Words   |  4 PagesCancer, a disease that can affect multiple areas in your body. The colon is one area highly susceptibl e to Cancer. Characterized by the development of Malignant cells in the lining of the large intestine, (Richard; Teresa; Melinda; Lee) Colon Cancer is currently the third leading cause of death among men and women.(Richard; Teresa; Melinda; Lee) So what is the colon used for? The colon is used for preserving fluids and electrolytes as it moves waste towards the rectum.(CRC) By starting in the colonRead MoreLymph Nodes Number Of Postoperative Total Mesorectal Excision Specimen Essay1698 Words   |  7 PagesLymph node number in postoperative total mesorectal excision specimen Abdrabou N Mashhour Cairo University, Faculty of medicine, General surgery department Abstract: Background: proper rectal cancer staging is a vital step in management and prognosis of the disease depending on the tumour, nodal state and distant metastasis (TNM). Sufficient number of lymph nodes detected in postoperative TME specimen is a corner stone in staging. Lymph node number detected should not be less than 12 lymph nodesRead MoreColon Cancer Essay2298 Words   |  10 PagesColon Cancer What is the disease? Colon and rectal cancer develop in the digestive tract, which is also called the gastrointestinal, or GI, tract. The digestive system processes food for energy and rids the body of solid waste matter (fecal matter or stool). Colon cancer and rectal cancer have many features in common. Sometimes they are referred to together as colorectal cancer. Over 95% of colorectal cancers are ad enocarcinomas. These are cancers of the glandular cells that line the inside

Domestic Violence Speech Free Essays

Domestic Violence Against Women Introduction On May 2, 1982, Michael Connell visited his estranged wife Karen and their son Ward. Karen and Michael had been separated for more than a year but were seeing each other. A friend of Ward’s also visiting and the four of them were going on a picnic. We will write a custom essay sample on Domestic Violence Speech or any similar topic only for you Order Now They never made it. At around noon, Karen staggered from the house, bleeding profusely from the neck. She collapsed into a neighbor’s arms, gasping that her husband had stabbed her and was still in the house with their 5 year-old son and his friend. The South Pasadena Police arrived on the scene to investigate. After several attempts to make contact with Michael or the children failed, they contacted the L. A. Sherriff’s SWAT team. The SWAT team, using a bullhorn, requested anyone inside the house come out. Two boys walked out of the house with their hands up, pleading, â€Å"Don’t shoot; we’re the good guys. † The SWAT team forced entry into the house at about 3:00. They found a man lying on the bathroom floor. He had massive slash wounds to his neck area and a stab wound to his chest. The wounds were self-inflicted. Michael Ward Connell was dead. At the same time, Karen was undergoing an operation at Huntington Memorial Hospital. She had lost seven pints of blood, and her vocal cords had been severed. Her young son Ward had saved her life by jumping on his father’s back and hitting them, screaming, â€Å"Don’t hurt my Mom! † The coroner’s report stated, â€Å"Decedent apparently had marital problems with his wife for quite some time. † Karen and Ward had been residents of Haven House, a refuge for battered women and their children. The Story that Shocked the Country At 12:05 a. m. n June 13, 1994, Nicole Brown and Ronald Goldman were found with their throats slit and heads partially decapitated outside Brown’s Bundy Drive condominium in the Brentwood area of Los Angeles, California. Her two children, Sydney (age 8) and Justin (age 5), were asleep inside in an upstairs bedroom. O. J. Simpson and Nicole Brown Simpson had divorced two years earlier. Evidenc e found and collected at the scene led police to suspect that O. J. Simpson was the murderer. Nicole had been stabbed multiple times through the throat to the point of near decapitation; her vertebrae were almost severed. Simpson was arrested and charged with the double murders. Three days later Simpson was arraigned and pleaded not guilty to both murders. During the trial prosecutors argued that Simpson killed his ex-wife in a jealous rage. The prosecutors opened it case by playing a 9-1-1 tape of Nicole Brown Simpson expressing fear that Simpson would physically harm her. The prosecuting spent the opening weeks of trial presenting evidence that Simpson had a history of physically abusing Nicole. However, after nine months of lengthy testifying and cross examinations O. J. Simpson was acquitted. The drama and tragedy of woman abuse will touch most of us, at some time in our lives, in a very personal way. This could happen directly as a result of our own intimate relationships with lovers or through the experience of some family members and or friends. Whether or not we have been raised in an abusive family environment, we are almost certainly going to have close contact with, and be affected by, someone who has. Domestic violence is on the rise in most countries around the world. Domestic violence is perpetrated against women in most cases. Every 15 seconds a woman is battered. Two to four million are abused each year and 4,000 of them die. Every 45 seconds someone in the United States is sexually assaulted. Domestic violence can be easily distinguished as being a disease which spreads rapidly and occurs in all religious groups, all races, relationships and to people of all ages. The roots to domestic violence lie in the soil of the patriarchal family. The belief that wives are the possessions of a male â€Å"head of household† who should control the behavior of all other family members is deeply embedded in social traditions. You may say to yourself this type of crime could never happen to me. To help determine if you have been a victim unaware let’s define domestic violence or sometimes called intimate partner violence (IPV) to determine if you or someone you know or love has ever been a victim of domestic violence. Domestic violence as defined by The U. S. Office on Violence Against Women (OVW) is a â€Å"pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over another intimate partner. The definition adds that domestic violence â€Å"can happen to anyone regardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion, or gender†, and that it takes many forms, including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and verbal abuse. Type of abuse To gain a better understanding of these different types of forms that abuse may have let’s characterize the most common ones in detail: Physical abuse is abuse involving contact intended to cause feelings of intimidation, pain, injury or other physical suffering or bodily harm. It often includes hitting, kicking, biting, shoving, restraining, slapping, punching, choking, and other types of contact that will result in physical injury to the victim. Physical abuse can also include behaviors such as denying the victim of medical care when needed, depriving the victim of sleep or other functions necessary to live, or forcing the victim to engage in drug/alcohol against her will. Sexual abuse is any situation in which force is used to obtain participation in unwanted, unsafe, or degrading sexual activity constitutes sexual abuse. Forced sex, even by a spouse or intimate partner with whom consensual sex has occurred, is an act of aggression and violence. The National Coalition Against Domestic Violence reports that between one-third and one-half of all battered women are raped by their partners at least once during the relationship. Furthermore, women whose partners abuse them physically and sexually are at a higher risk of being seriously injured or killed. Emotional abuse is defined as any behavior that threatens, intimidates, undermines the victim’s self-worth or self-esteem, or controls the victim’s freedom. This can include threatening the victim with injury or harm, telling the victim that they will be killed if they ever leave the relationship, and public humiliation. Constant criticism, name-calling, and making statements that damage the victim’s self-esteem are also common forms of emotional abuse. Often perpetrators will use children to engage in emotional abuse by teaching them to harshly criticize the victim as well. Emotional abuse includes conflicting actions or statements which are designed to confuse and create insecurity in the victim. These behaviors also lead the victim to questions themselves, causing them to believe that they are making up the abuse or that the abuse is their fault. Emotional abuse can include humiliating the victim privately or publicly, controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding information from the victim, deliberately doing something to make the victim feel diminished or embarrassed, isolating the victim from friends and family, implicitly blackmailing the victim by harming others when the victim expresses independence or happiness, or denying the victim access to money or other basic resources and necessities. Verbal abuse is a form of abusive behavior involving the use of language; it is a form of profanity that can occur with or without the use of expletives. Abuses can ignore, ridicule, disrespect, and criticize others consistently, manipulate words, falsely accuse, make others feel unwanted and unloved, threaten economically, isolate victims from support systems, demonstrate Jekyll and Hyde behaviors, either in terms of sudden rages or behavioral changes, or where there is a very different â€Å"face† shown to the outside world verses with victim. Why does she stay? People who have never been in an abusive relationship may wonder,† Why doesn’t she just leave? † There are many reasons why a woman may not leave an abusive relationship. She may have little or no money and have way to support herself or her children. She may reach out for help and find that all the local domestic violence shelters are full. She may not be able to contact friends and family who could help her. Or she may worry about the safety of herself and her children if she leaves. But if she does leave, victims often lack specialized skills, education, and training that are necessary to find gainful employment. In 2003, thirty-six US cities cited domestic violence as one of the primary causes of homelessness in their areas. It is also reported the one out of every three homeless women are homeless due to having a domestic violence relationship. Laws and Regulations Education concerning domestic violence has come a long way, but it still has a ways to go. The response to domestic violence is typically a combined effort between law enforcement, social services, and health care. The role of each has evolved as domestic violence has been brought more into public view. Domestic violence historically has been viewed as a private family matter that need not involve the government or criminal justice. First passed in 1994, the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA) made domestic violence and sexual assault crimes. The VAWA created new punishments for these crimes and gave agencies helping victims more funding to improve their services. In 2000, the VAWA was re-authorized, meaning that Congress and the president agreed to renew the law. In addition to re-authorizing the law, stalking and dating violence were added to the list of crimes covered by the law. Also, more funding was added for legal aid programs for victims. If you’re a victim of abuse or violence at the hands of someone you know or love. Get immediate help and support. The National Domestic Violence Hotline can be reached 24 hours a day, 7 days a week at 800-799-SAFE. Conclusion everyday world could it be you, your roommate, your best friend or neighbor. if you’re a victim of abuse of violence at the hands of someone you know or love get immediate help and support. You’re not alone. The National Domestic Violence Hotline can be reached 24 hours a day, 7 days a week at 800-799-SAFE. Sometimes its hard and confusing to admit that you are in an abusive relationship or to find a way out. There are clear signs to help you know if you are being abused. If you person you love or live with does any of these things, it’s time to get help: * Monitors what you’re doing all the time * Criticizes you for little things * Constantly accuses you of being unfaithful Prevents or discourages you from seeing friends or family, or going to work or school * Gets angry when drinking alchol or uses drugs * Controls how you spend your money * Controls your use of needed medicines * Humiliates you in front of others * Destroys your property or things you care about * Threathens to hurt you, the children, or pets, or does hurt you (by hitting, beating, pushing , shoving, punching, slapping, kicking or biting) * Uses or threatens to use a weapon again st you * Forces you to have sex against your will * Blames you for his violent outbursts How to cite Domestic Violence Speech, Papers

International Assignments free essay sample

Why do organizations use Expatriates? Expatriates were used as a means of addressing agency issues as a result of the separation of ownership and management and their amplification through distance. Edstrom and Gailbraith (1977) proposed three motives for using expatriates. Firstly, as position fillers when suitably qualified host country nationals (HCNs) were not available. Secondly, as a means of management development, aimed at developing the competence of the individual manager. Thirdly, as a means of organisational development, aimed at increasing knowledge transfer within the MNC and modifying and sustaining organizational structure and decision processes. Although it is important to note that assignments generally have more than one rationale (Sparrow et al. , 2004) More recently, Harzing (2001) identified three control specific roles of expatriates, namely: the bear, the bumble-bee, and the spider. Bears act as a means of replacing the centralisation of decision-making in MNC and provide a direct means of surveillance over subsidiary operations. The title highlights the degree of dominance these assignees have over subsidiary operations. Bumble bees fly â€Å"‘from plant to plant’ and create cross-pollination between the various offshoots† (Harzing, 2001: 369). These expatriates can be used to control subsidiaries through socialisation of host employees and the development of informal communication networks. Finally spiders, as the name suggests control through the weaving of informal communication networks within the MNC There is a growing debate as to the continued utility and viability of the conventional expatriate assignment. 5 key aspects of this issue: supply side issues*, demand side issues*, expatriate performance and expatriate failure, performance evaluation, and finally costs and career dynamics. Supply side There is growing recognition that shortages of international managers are a significant problem for international firms and frequently constrain the implementation of global strategies in these firms (Evans et al, 2002) Broadly these issues can be grouped as issues concerning the recruitment and retention of potential expatriate employees. Issues related to recruitment and potential expatriate employees There is some evidence to suggest that families are less willing to accept the disruption of personal and social lives associated with international assignments than was the case in the past (Forster, 2000). The most recent available data suggest that the female expatriate population has not risen significantly over the past decade and remains at approximately 10 per cent however (PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2005). Recent research conducted on the outcome of women’s global assignments has indicated that female expatriates are generally successful in their global assignments. Issues related to retention of expatriate employees There is growing recognition that companies deal unsympathetically with the problems faced by expatriates on re-entry reluctant to accept int. ssignments North American research indicates that 20 per cent of all managers who complete foreign assignments wish to leave their company on return. Yet, while it is generally accepted that retention of expatriates is a growing problem and that the costs of expatriate turnover are considerable (Dowling and Welch, 2004), many international firms have failed to develop repatriation policies or programmes designed to assist the career progression of the expatriate (Black et al 2000) There is little evidence to suggest that many companies practice talent management in a co-ordinated and efficient way (Cohn et al, 2005), Which may be defined as approaches to recruit, retain, develop and motivate a competent cohort of managerial talent with appropriate international experience in the global business environment. Evans et al (2002) â€Å"MNCs are unaware of where their best talent is located and have difficulties in indentifying their high performers. Costs A key challenge for both international HRM professionals and academics is to understand and develop methodologies for accurately measuring the relative costs and benefits associated with international assignments. Sparrow et al. (2004: 139) conclude on the basis of empirical study that few organisations had a true grasp of the costs associated with expatriate assignments, similarly they had almost no idea of the benefits accrued by the organisation from various types of international assignment. So while organisations may have a well-designed and articulate strategy with regard to staffing their foreign operations, they have often failed to monitor the performance of international assignees to accurately measure their performance and contribution to the bottom line Demand side issues Rapid growth of emerging markets such as China, India and Eastern Europe has a significant impact on both the demand and the supply of international mangers. Internatinalisation of small and medium enterprises demand Arguably therefore, a relatively small recruitment pool for global assignments is being further diluted by an expanding number of firms and locations competing for scarce international management talent Expatriate â€Å"failure† Traditionally, a key issue in the global staffing literature is expatriate failure, which represents a significant issue for MNCs due to the high costs of expatriate failure which are both direct (e. . salary, training costs, travel and relocation expenses) and indirect (damaged relations with host country organizations and loss of market share) (Dowling and Welch, 2004). Harzing (1995; 2002)- She suggests that there is little empirical evidence for the claims of high expatriate failure and claims that the myth of high expatriate failure rates has been perpetuated by careless and inappropriate referencing of Tung’s (1981; 1982) seminal work. If firms can take a broader view of the success or failure of expatriate assignments, they are more likely to gain a better picture of the utility of such assignments than they can with narrow definitions of failure Expatriate Performance Managing performance in a traditional expatriate assignment is complex. Complexity added to this process by the fact that expatriates must meet the often conflicting expectations of HQ management and subsidiary colleagues. It has been argued that there are a number of factors which impact on the performance of expatriate employees. These include technical knowledge, personal (and family) adjustment to the foreign culture, and environmental factors (political and labor force stability and cultural distance from one’s home culture) (Cascio, 2006; Oddou and Mendenhall, 2000). It is important to note, however, the potential problems which would result from a primary focus on technical competence which lacks adequate consideration of cultural factors. Career issues Traditional literature: employees lose their jobs or demoted on arrival 2 recent trends emphasis placed by employees on career mobility and decreasing commitment to specific organisations. International assignees’ perceive the value of the assignment to be in developing individual competence which can be transferred across organizations and which is valued in the external labor market (DeFillippi amp; Arthur, 1996; Parker amp; Inkson, 1999; Stahl, Miller, amp; Tung, 2002). This literature resonates with the emerging literature on the boundaryless career (Arthur and Rousseau, 1996). Thomas et al (2005: 341) note: The boundaryless careerist†¦is the highly qualified mobile professional who builds his or her career competencies and labor market value through transfer across boundaries. He or she is explicitly and implicitly contrasted with more staid careerists pursuing traditional organizational careers, who, it is implied, are at risk in a rapidly changing society because their career-relevant skills and networks are associated with single organizations vulnerable to unexpected change. it may call into question ongoing organizational loyalty, reflected, for example, in the high levels of expatriate turnover on repatriation that emerge in the literature. Alternative forms international assignment Research suggests there is little evidence of a significant decline in the use of long-term assignments but does identify the growing use of alternative forms of international assignments (cf. Dowling and Welch, 2004; Fenwick, 2004; Mayerhofer et al. , 2004; PriceWaterhoseCoopers, 2005; Scullion and Collings, 2006c; Tahanainen, Welch and Worm, 2005). Short term int assignments| Typically, what constitutes ‘short-term’ is company specific, but it could be considered an assignment longer than a business-trip but shorter than a year’s duration. used in MNCs: (1) Problem solving or skills transfer- for example in implementing a project, establishing a new process or troubleshooting; (2) for control purposes and; (3) for managerial development reasons. | Failure to build effective relationships with local colleagues and customersWork visa permits Alcoholism/marital problems| Frequent flyer assignments| The IBT has been defined as â€Å"one for whom business travel is an essential component of their work† (Welch and Worm, 2006: 284)| * face-to-face interaction without the requirement for their physical relocation. Appropriate in the European context, where many European capitals can be reached with a short flight (1 to 3 hours). Appropriate for conducting irregular specialized tasks, such as annual budgeting meetings or production scheduling| Short trips followed one after the other- health issues, serious family problems compared to traditional, Individuals fail to catch up with work back home| Commuter and Rotational Assignments| The former: an assignee commutes from their home base to another country to a post in another country, generally on a weekly or bi-weekly basis (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005). Latter:staff commute from their home country to a workplace in another country for a sort period followed by a period of time off in the home country (Welch and Worm, 2006). oilrigs| report particular success of this approach in the Chinese context, although they also point to the complexities of using such assignments due to issues around compensation, taxation and social security. geographic situation in Europe means that Eurocommuting and frequent visiting is a viable alternative to expatriate transfers (Mayrhofer and Brewster, 1997). concerns about the viability of commuter arrangements over an extended period of time due to the build up of stress from intensive travel commitments and the impact on personal relationships† (Dowling and Welch, 2004: 68)| Global virtual teams| As a result of increasing decentralisation and globalisation of work processes, organisations have responded to their dynamic environments by introducing GVT in which members are geographically disperse d and coordinate their work predominantly with electronic information and communication technologies. In global virtual teams, staff do not relocate to a host location but have a responsibility to manage international staff from the home base (Dowling and Welch, 2004). Help global firms to use the best talent wherever it is located (Maznevski et al. , 2006). Appropriate for relatively routine activities. | Some argue for it to be a international assignment there need to be relocation| HR implications for managing International Assignments There is little doubt that a significant challenge for international HR managers in managing this portfolio of international assignments is the need to develop a range of IHRM policies and practices to take account the different types, objectives and different circumstances surrounding each type of assignment. Policies surrounding IS International assignments result in a greater administrative burden in some areas of international HR managers. Challenges will be tracking and accounting for this increasingly diverse group of internationally mobile employees, particularly in relation to tax, social security, visa and legal requirements or the various countries (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005). Research indicates that over 50 per cent of respondents followed a single policy for both long and short-term assignments (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005). The danger for organizations and assignees in failing to develop appropriate policies is that their international assignment will fall outside the traditional remit of the international HR function and thus they will not receive the level of organizational support required. The challenge for the international HR function is to develop appropriate policies to minimise the possibility of this occurring and to support the assignment in the most appropriate way. On the other hand, while research has emphasised the importance of support for traditional international assignments (Tung, 2000), recent research has highlighted the lack of HR support for alternative international assignees and suggested that the burden of managing these assignments is largely left with employees and their families (Mayerhofer et al, 2004). - need family friendly staffing policies Recruitment and selection The importance of effective recruitment and selection for the success of traditional expatriate assignments and for enabling international firms to compete effectively in international business has long been recognised However recent research on short-term assignment indicates that formal selection for short-term assignments was rarely practiced among respondents (Tahvanainen et al, 2005). The majority of international firms continue to rely on technical skills and domestic track record as the most important selection criteria and many organisations still undervalue the importance of the â€Å"soft skills† of international management (Sparrow et al, 2004; Morley amp; Flynn, 2003). There is a need to develop a selection criteria based on the assignment. Training The value of cross-cultural training in increasing the probability of success of international assignments is relatively well documented in the extant literature (cf. Parkinson and Morley (2006). Recent research highlights the lack of HR support for international assignees and suggests that managers are often expected to assume responsibility for their own training and development (Mayerhofer et al, 2004). The practitioner literature suggests that expatriates on short-term assignments and IBTs don’t have the same time as traditional expatriates to adjust to a new culture. - thus without cultural training high tendency for alternative expat assignments to fail Reward (need evidence on rewards for traditional axpat programs) Given the fact that cost reduction is identified as a key factor driving the shift towards alternative forms of international assignments in MNCs, impacts around reward are likely to emerge as a key consideration for MNCs. On balance it appears that salary payments remain in the home country for short-term assignments (PricewaterhouseCoopers, 2005; Tahvanainen et al. 2005). There are cost of living adjustments made. Short term assignments can be comparatively expensive for MNCs- hotels vs apartments mainly IBT Occupational health and safety more related to alternative assignments This is particularly the case with regard to IBTs as there is a growing body of literature which highlights the health issues associated with business travel (DeFrank et al. , 2000; Neck, 2000;Welch and Worm, 2006). These issues can range from a lack of emphasis and decline on physical fitness (Neck, 2000), to increased alcohol consumption, to significantly increased stress levels related to business travel (DeFrank et al. , 2000; Welch and Worm, 2006). While these issues have significant implications for the individuals concerned, it is without doubt that health issues could potentially have significant implications for organizational performance (Quick, 2000)